Forest Ecosystems In A Changing World

Fernow Fall





Long-term data from the Fernow are highlighted in several major reviews of nitrogen saturation (e.g., Stoddard 1994), included in regional comparisons (e.g., Aber et al. 2003), and summarized in a LTREB-supported synthesis book (Adams et al. 2006).

Publications are grouped chronologically within the following periods:

2016-2020 (Current LTREB Funding)
(Previous LTREB Funding)
2004-2009 (Initial LTREB Funding)

Those considered relevant to LTREB funding are ones with results from work done in the Long-Term Soil Productivity Plots or in Watersheds 3, 4, 7, 10, or 13 at the Fernow Experimental Forest. Publications are also included that provide complimentary (e.g. historical) information.

This list is not comprehensive and will be periodically updated.

Fernow BookLTREB Related Publications

During period of LTREB funding:

===== 2018 =====

Carrara, J.E., C.A. Walter, J.S. Hawkins, W.T. Peterjohn, C. Averill, and E.R. Brzostek. 2018. Interactions among plants, bacteria, and fungi reduce extracellular enzyme activities under long-term N fertilization. Global Change Biology DOI:10.1111/gcb.14081

Gilliam, F.S., J.D. May, and M.B. Adams. 2018. Response of foliar nutrients of Rubus allegheniensis to nutrient amendments in a central Appalachian hardwood forest. Foret Ecology and Management 411:101-107

Gilliam, F.S., C.A. Walter, M.B. Adams, and W.T. Peterjohn. 2018. Nitrogen (N) dynamics in the mineral soil of a central Appalachian hardwood forest during a quarter century of whole-watershed N additions. Ecosystems DOI:10.1007/s10021-018-0234-4

San Clements, M.D., I.J. Fernandez, R.H. Lee, J.A. Roberti, M.B. Adams, G.A. Rue, and D.M. McKnight. 2018. Long-term experimental acidification drives watershed scale shift in dissoved organic matter composition and flux. Environmental Science & Technology DOI:10.1021/acs.est.7b04499

===== 2017 =====

Burnham, M.B. 2017. Using long-term records to investigate watershed nitrogen supply and demand dynamics at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA. Doctoral Dissertation, West Virginia University, WV, USA

Burnham, M.B., J.R. Cumming, M.B. Adams, and W.T. Peterjohn. 2017. Soluble soil aluminum alters the relative uptake of mineral nitrogen forms by six mature temperate broadleaf tree species: possible implications for watershed nitrate retention. Oecologia DOI 10.1007/s00442-017-3955-8

Walter, C.A., M.B. Adams, F.S. Gilliam, and W.T. Peterjohn. 2017.  Non-random species loss in a forest herbaceous layer following nitrogen addition. Ecology 98:2322-2332 DOI 10.1002/ecy.1928


===== 2016 =====

Burnham, M.B., B.E. McNeil, M.B. Adams, and W.T. Peterjohn. 2016. The response of tree ring d15N to whole-watershed urea fertilization at the Fernow Experimental Forest, WV. Biogeochemistry 130:133-145 DOI 10.1007/s10533-016-0248-y

Dye, A., A.B. Plotkin, D. Bishop, N. Pederson, B. Poulter, and A. Hessl. 2016. Comparing tree-ring and permanent plot estimates of aboveground net primary production in three eastern U.S. forests. Ecosphere 7:e01454.10.1002/ecs2.1454

Gilliam, F.S., J.H. Billmyer, C.A. Walter, and W.T. Peterjohn. 2016. Effects of excess nitrogen on biogeochemistry of a temperate hardwood forest: Evidence of nutrient redistribution by a forest understory species. Atmospheric Environment 146:261-270

Gilliam, F.S., N.T. Welch, A.H. Phillips, J.K. Billmyer, W.T. Peterjohn, Z.K. Fowler, C.A. Walter, M.B Burnham, J.D. May, and M.B. Adams. 2016. Twenty-five-year response of the herbaceous layer of a temperate hardwood forest to elevated nitrogen deposition. Ecosphere 7(4)e01250.10.1002/ecs2.1250, Article e01250

Pelloquin, R.A., and S.L. Stephenson. 2016. Assessing the ecological impact of whole watershed acidification on the myxomycetes associated with forest floor leaf litter. Current Research in Environmental and Applied Mycology 6(3): 184–189 DOI 10.5943/cream/6/3/5

Simkin, S.M., E.B. Allen, W.D. Bowman, C.M. Clark, J.Belnap, M.L. Brooks, B.S. Cade, S.L. Collins, L.H. Geiser, F.S. Gilliam, S.E. Jovan, L.H. Pardo, B.K. Schulz, C.J. Stevens, K.N. Suding, H.L. Throop, and D.M. Waller. 2016. Conditional vulnerability of plant diversity to atmospheric nitrogen deposition across the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences DOI:10.1073/pnas.1515241113

Walter, C.A. 2016. Does enhanced nitrogen input affect the structure and composition of forest vegetation? Results from long-term experiments at the Fernow Experimental Forest. Doctoral Dissertation, West Virginia University, WV, USA

Walter, C.A., D.T. Raiff, M.B. Burnham, F.S. Gilliam, M.B. Adams, and W.T. Peterjohn. 2016.  Nitrogen fertilization interacts with light to increase Rubus spp. cover in a temperate forest. Plant Ecology DOI 10.1007/s11258-016-0583-z

2010-2015 Back to top


Fowler, Z.K., M.B. Adams, and W.T. Peterjohn. 2015. Will more nitrogen enhance carbon storage in young forest stands in central Appalachia? Forest Ecology and Management 337:144-152

Gilliam, F.S., J.E. Galloway, and J.S. Sarmiento. 2015. Variation with slope aspect in effects of temperature on nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in mineral soil of mixed hardwood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 45:958-962.

Peterjohn, W.T., M.A. Harlacher, M.J. Christ, and M.B. Adams. 2015. Testing associations between tree species and nitrate availability:Do consistent patterns exist across spatial scales? Forest Ecology and Management 358:335-343

Rose, L.A, E.M. Elliot, and M.B. Adams. 2015. Triple nitrate isotopes indicate differing nitrate source contributions to streams across a nitrogen saturation gradient. Ecosystems DOI: 10.1007/s10021-015-9891-8

Walter, C.A., M.B. Burnham, F.S. Gilliam, and W.T. Peterjohn. 2015. A reference-based approach for estimating leaf area and cover in the forest herbaceous layer. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187:657 DOI 10.1007/s10661-015-4878-7


Adams, M.B., J.D. Knoepp, and J.R. Webster. 2014. Inorganic nitrogen retention by watersheds at Fernow Experimental Forest and Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory. Soil Science Society of America Journal DOI:10.2136/sssaj2013.11.0463nafsc

Creed, I.F., A.T. Spargo, J.A. Jones, J.M. Buttle, M.B. Adams, F.D. Beall, E. Booth, J. Campbell, D. Clow, K. Elder, M.B. Green, N.B. Grimm, C. Miniat, P. Ramlal, A. Saha, S. Sebestyen, D. Spittlehouse, S. Sterling, M.W. Williams, R. Winkler, H. Yao. 2014. Changing forest water yields in response to climate warming: Results from long-term experimental watershed sites across North America. Global Change Biology DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12615

Fowler, Z.K. 2014. The effects of accelerated soil acidification on aggrading temperate deciduous forests: The Fernow Experimental Forest Long Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) Study at 13 years. Doctoral Dissertation, West Virginia University, WV, USA

Gilliam, F.S. 2014. Nitrogen biogeochemistry research at Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA: soils, biodiversity and climate change. Chapter 29 in M.A. Sutton et al. (eds.), in Nitrogen Deposition, Critical Loads and Biodiversity, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-7939-6_29, Springer Science+Business Media, Dordrecht

Gilliam, F.S., Editor. 2014. The herbaceous layer in forests of Eastern North America, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA.

Jensen, N.K., E.J. Holzmueller, P.J. Edwards, M. Thomas-Van Gundy, D.R. DeWalle, and K.W.J. Williard. 2014. Tree response to experimental watershed acidification. Water Air and Soil Pollution 225:2034 DOI 10.1007/s11270-014-2034-6


Argerich, A. S.L. Johnson, S.D. Sebestyen, C.C. Rhoades, E. Greathouse, J.D. Knoepp, M.B. Adams, G.E. Likens, J.L. Campbell, W.H. McDowell, F.N. Scatena, and G.G. Ice. 2013. Trends in stream nitrogen concentrations for forested reference catchments across the USA. Environmental Research Letters 8: 014039 DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014039.

Clark, C.M., P.E. Morefield, F.S. Gilliam, and L.H. Pardo. 2013.Estimated losses of plant biodiversity in the United States from historical N deposition (1985-2010). Ecology 94:1441-1448.

De Frenne et al. 2013. Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110:18561-18565.


Jones, J.A., I.F. Creed, K.L. Hatcher, R.J. Warren, M.B. Adams, M.H. Benson, E. Boose, W.A. Brown, J.L. Campbell, A. Covich, D.W. Clow, C.N. Dahm, K. Elder, C.R. Ford, N.B. Grimm, D.L. Henshaw, K.L. Larson, E.S. Miles, K.M. Miles, S.D. Sebestyen, A.T. Spargo, A.B. Stone, J.M. Vose, and M.W. Williams. 2012. Ecosystem processes and human influences regulate streamflow response to climate change at long-term ecological research sites. BioScience 62:390-404.

Kerr, J.G., M.C. Eimers, I.F. Creed, M.B. Adams, F. Beall, D. Burns, J.L. Campbell, S.F. Christopher, T.A. Clair, F. Courchesne, L. Duchesne, I. Fernandez, D. Houle, D.S. Jeffries, G.E. Likens, M.J. Mitchell, J. Shanley, and H. Yao. 2012.The effect of seasonal drying on sulphate dynamics in streams across southeastern Canada and the northeastern USA. Biogeochemistry 111:393-409. DOI: 10.1007/s10533-011-9664-1

Sun, G., S.B McLaughlin, J.H. Porter, J. Uddling, P.J. Mulholland, M.B. Adams, and N. Pederson. 2012. Interactive influences of ozone and climate on streamflow of forested watersheds. Global Change Biology DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02787.x


Gilliam, F.S., and M.B. Adams. 2011. Effects of nitrogen on temporal and spatial patterns of nitrate in streams and soil solution of a central hardwood forest. ISRN Ecology DOI:10.5402/2011/138487

Gilliam, F.S., R.L. McCulley, and J.A. Nelson. 2011. Spatial variability in soil microbial communities in a nitrogen-saturated hardwood forest watershed. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75: DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2010.0172

Kelly, C.N., S.H. Schoenholtz, and M.B. Adams. 2011. Soil properties associated with net nitrification following watershed conversion from Appalachian hardwoods to Norway spruce. Plant and Soil 344:361-376.

Pardo, L.H., M.E. Fenn, C.L. Goodale, L.H. Geiser, C.T. Driscoll, E.B. Allen, J.S. Baron, R. Bobbink, W.D. Bowman, C.M. Clark, B. Emmett, F.S. Gilliam, T.L. Greaver, S.J. Hall, E.A. Lilleskov, L. Liu, J.A. Lynch, K.J. Nadelhoffer, S.S. Perakis, M.J. Robin-Abbott, J.L. Stoddard, K.C. Weathers, and R.L. Dennis. 2011.Effects of nitrogen deposition and empirical nitrogen loads for ecoregions of the United States. Ecological Applications 21:3049-3082.

Stone, M.M., M.S. Weiss, C.L. Goodale, M.B. Adams, I.J. Fernandez, D.P. German, and S.D. Allison. 2011. Temperature sensitivity of soil enzyme kinetics under N-fertiliazation in two temperatue forests. Global Change Biology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02545.x .


Bobbink, R., K. Hicks, J. Galloway, T. Spranger,  R. Alkemade, M. Ashmore, M. Bustamante, S. Cinderby, E. Davidson, F. Dentener, B. Emmett, J.-W. Erisman, M. Fenn, F. Gilliam, A. Nordin, L. Pardo and W. de Vries.  2010. Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity effects of terrestrial ecosystems: a synthesis. Ecological Applications 20:30-59.

Fernandez, I.J. M.B. Adams, M.D. SanClements, and S.A. Norton. 2010. Comaparing decadal responses of whole-watershed manipulations at the Bear Brook and Fernow experiments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1524-2

Gilliam, F.S., A. Cook, and S. Lyter. 2010. Effects of experimental freezing on soil nitrogen dynamics in soils from a net nitrification gradient in a nitrogen-saturated hardwood forest ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 436-444.

Johnson, B.A., K.B. Piatek, M.B. Adams, and J.R. Brooks. 2010. Does nitrogen and sulfur deposition affect forest productivity?  In: Rentch, J.S.; Schuler, Thomas M., eds. Proceedings from the conference on the ecology and management of high-elevation forests in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains. 2009 May 14-15; Slatyfork, WV. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-P-64. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station: 85-93.

Piatek, K.B., P. Munasinghe, W. T. Peterjohn, M.B. Adams, and J. Cumming. 2010. A decrease in oak litter mass changes nutrient dynamics in the litter layer of a central hardwood forest. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 27:97-104. 

SanClements, M.D., I.J. Fernandez, and S.A. Norton. 2010. Phosphorus in soils of temperate forests: Linkages to acidity and aluminum. Soil Science Society of America Journal 74:2175-2186. 

2004-2009 Back to top


Davis, S.C., A.E. Hessl, C.J. Scott, M.B. Adams, and R.B. Thomas. 2009. Forest carbon sequestration changes in response to timber harvest. Forest Ecology and Management 258:2101-2109.

Davis, S.C., K.E. Dragan, C.R. Buyarski, and R.B. Thomas. 2009. High foliar and soil nitrogen concentrations in central Appalachian forests. Ecosystems 12: 46-56. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-008-9205-5.

Piatek, K.B., P. Munasinghe, W. T. Peterjohn, M.B. Adams, and J. Cumming. 2009. Oak contribution to litter nutrient dynamics in an Appalachian forest receiving elevated N and dolomite.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39:936-944.


Davis, S.C., A.E. Hessl, and R.B. Thomas. 2008. A modified nitrogen budget for temperate deciduous forests in an advanced stage of nitrogen saturation. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. DOI: 10.1029/2008GB003187.


Adams, M.B., J.N. Kochenderfer, and P.J. Edwards. 2007. The Fernow Watershed Acidification Study: Ecosystem acidification, nitrogen saturation and base cation leaching. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus 7:267-273.

Brookshire, E.N.J., H.M. Valett, S.A. Thomas, and J.R. Webster. 2007. Atmospheric N deposition increases organic N loss from temperate forests. Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-007-9019-x.

Gilliam, F.S. 2007. The ecological significance of the herbaceous layer in temperate forest ecosystems. BioScience 57:845-858.

Gress, S.E., T.D. Nichols, C.C. Northcraft, and W.T. Peterjohn. 2007.  Nutrient limitation in  soils exhibiting differing nitrogen availabilities: What lies beyond nitrogen saturation?  Ecology 88: 119-130.


Adams, M.B., D.R. DeWalle, and J.L. Hom (editors). 2006. The Fernow Watershed Acidification Study. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 279 pages.

Edwards, P.J., and K.W.J. Williard. 2006. Declines in soil-water nitrate in nitrogen-saturated watersheds. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  36: 1931-1942.

Gilliam, F.S. 2006. Response of the herbaceous layer of forest ecosystems to excess nitrogen deposition. Journal of Ecology  94: 1176-1191.

Gilliam, F.S., A.W. Hockenberry, and M.B. Adams. 2006. Effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the herbaceous layer of a central Appalachian hardwood forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society  133: 240-254.

Pardo, L.H., P.H. Templer, C.L. Goodale, S. Duke. P.M. Groffman, M.B. Adams, P. Boeckx, J. Boggs, J. Campbell, B. Colman, J. Compton, B. Emmett, P. Gundersen, J. Kjonaas, G. Lovett, M. Mack, A. Bagill, M. Mbila, M.J. Mitchell, G. McGee, S. McNulty, K. Nadelhoffer, S. Ollinger, D. Ross, H. Rueth, L. Rustad, P. Schaberg, S. Schiff, P. Schleppi, J. Spoelstra, and W. Wessel. 2006. Regional assessment of N saturation using foliar and root d15N. Biogeochemistry 80:143-171.

Wallenstein. M.D.,  W.T. Peterjohn, and W.H. Schlesinger. 2006. N fertilization effects on denitrification and N cycling in an aggrading forest. Ecological Applications 16: 2168-2176.


Gilliam, F.S., N.L. Lyttle, A.Thomas, and M.B. Adams. 2005. Soil variability along a nitrogen mineralization and nitrification gradient in a nitrogen-saturated hardwood forest. Soil Science Society of America. Journal  69: 247-256.

May, J.D., S.S. Burdette, F.S. Gilliam, and M.B. Adams. 2005. Interspecific divergence in foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth in a temperate forest in response to chronic nitrogen inputs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35:1023-1030.

Williard, K..W.J., D.R. DeWalle, and P.J. Edwards. 2005. Influence of bedrock geology and tree species composition on stream nitrate concentrations in mid-Appalachian forested watershed. Water, Air, and soil Pollution 160:55-76.


Adams, M.B., J.A. Burger, L. Zelazny, and J. Baumgras. 2004. Description of the Fork Mountain long-term soil productivity study: site characterization. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experimental Station, General Technical Report NE-323, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, USA.

Campbell, J.L., J.W. Hornbeck, M.J. Mitchell, M.B. Adams, M.S. Castro, C.T. Driscoll, J.S. Kahl, J.N. Kochenderfer, G.E. Likens, J.A. Lynch, P.S. Murdoch, S.J. Nelson, and J.B. Shanley. 2004. Input-output budgets of inorganic nitrogen for 24 forest watersheds in the northeastern United States: A review. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 151:373-396.

Schuler, T.M. 2004. Fifty years of partial harvesting in a mixed mesophytic forest: composition and productivity. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  34: 985-997.

Venterea, R.T., P.M. Groffman, M.S. Castro, L.V. Verchot, I.J. Fernandez, and M.B. Adams. 2004. Soil emissions of nitric oxide in two forest watersheds subjected to elevated N inputs. Forest Ecology and Management. 196: 335-349.

Prior to LTREB funding:

2000-2003 Back to top


Aber, J.D., C.L. Goodale, S.V. Ollinger, M-L. Smith, A.H. Magill, M.E. Martin, R.A. Hallett, and J.L. Stoddard. 2003.  Is nitrogen deposition altering the nitrogen status of northeastern forests? BioScience 53:375-389.

Williard, K.W.J., D.R. DeWalle, and P.J. Edwards. 2003. Assessing the extent of nitrogen saturation in norther West Virginia forested watersheds: a survey of stream nitrate concentrations. In:Van Sambeek, J.W.; Dawson, J.O.; Ponder, F., Jr.: Loewenstein, E.F.; Fralish, J.S., eds. 2003. Proceedings, 13th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 2002 April 1-3; Urbana, IL. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-234. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 121-129


Christ, M.J., W.T. Peterjohn, J.R. Cumming, and M.B. Adams.2002.  Nitrification potentials and landscape, soil and vegetation characteristics in two Central Appalachian watersheds differing in NO3- export. Forest Ecology and Management 159:145-158.

Edwards, P.J., J.N. Kochenderfer, D.W. Coble, and M.B. Adams. 2002. Soil leachate responses during 10 years of induced whole-watershed acidification. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 140:99-118.

Edwards, P.J., F. Wood, and J.N. Kochenderfer. 2002. Baseflow and peakflow chemical responses to experimental applications of ammonium sulphate to forested watersheds in north-central West Virginia, USA. Hydrological Processes 16:2287-2310.


Gilliam, F.S., C.C. Sommerville, N.L. Lyttle, and M.B. Adams. 2001.Factors influencing spatial variability in nitrogen processing in nitrogen-saturated soils. The Scientific World 1:505-513.

Gilliam, F.S., B.M. Yurish, and M.B. Adams. 2001. Temporal and spatial variation of nitrogen transformations in nitrogen-saturated soils of a central Appalachian hardwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31:1768-1785.

Williard, K..W.J., D.R. DeWalle, P.J. Edwards, and W.E. Sharpe. 2001. 18O isotopic separation of stream nitrate sources in mid-Appalachian forested watersheds. Journal of Hydrology 252:174-188.


Adams, M.B., J.A. Burger, A.B. Jenkins, and L. Zelazny. 2000. Impact of harvesting and atmospheric pollution on nutrient depletion of eastern US hardwood forests. Forest Ecology and Management 138:301-319.

1990-1999 Back to top


Adams, M.B. 1999. Acidic deposition and sustainable forest management in the central Appalachians, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 122:17-28.

DeWalle, D.R., J.S. Tepp, B.R. Swistock, W.E. Sharpe, and P.J. Edwards. 1999. Tree-ring cation response to experimental watershed acidification in West Virginia and Maine. Journal of Environmental Quality 28:299-309.

Lux, H.B, and J.R. Cumming. 1999. Effect of aluminum on the growth and nutrition of tulip-poplar seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29:2003-2007.

Peterjohn, W.T., C.J. Foster, M.J. Christ, and M.B. Adams. 1999. Patterns of nitrogen availability within a forested watershed exhibiting symptoms of nitrogen saturation. Forest Ecology and Management 119:247-257.

Williard, K.W.J., D.R. DeWalle, P.J. Sharpe, P.J. Edwards, and M.B. Adams.  1999. Spatial variations in stream nitrate concentrations in a region containing a nitrogen saturated watershed.  Pages 23-30 in W.E. DeWalle, and J.R. Drohan, editors.  The effects of acidic deposition on aquatic ecosystems in Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the 1998 PA Acidic Deposition Conference, Vol. II.  Environmental Resources Institute, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.


Peterjohn, W.T., R.J. McGervey, A.J. Sexstone, M.J. Christ, C.J. Foster, and M.B. Adams. 1998. Nitrous oxide production in two forested watersheds exhibiting symptoms of nitrogen saturation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28:1723-1732.


Adams, M.B., T.R. Angradi, and J.N. Kochenderfer. 1997. Stream water and soil solution responses to 5 years of nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. Forest Ecology and Management 95:79-91.

Butler, L., G.A. Chrislip, V.A. Kondo, and E.C. Townsend. 1997. Effect of diflubenzuron on nontarget canopy arthropods in closed, deciduous watersheds in a central Appalachian forest. Journal of Economic Entomology 90:784-794.

DeWalle, D.R., P.J. Edwards, B.R. Swistock, R. Aravena, and R.J. Drimmie. 1997. Seasonal isotope hydrology of three Appalachian forest catchments. Hydrologic Processes 11:1895-1906.

Pan, C., S.J. Tajchman, and J.N. Kochenderfer. 1997. Dendroclimatological analysis of major forest species of the central Appalachians. Forest Ecology and Management 98:77-87.

Williard, K..W.J., D.R. DeWalle, P.J. Edwards, and R.R. Schnable.1997. Indicators of nitrate export from forested watersheds of the mid-Appalachians, United States of America. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11:649-656.


Adams, M.B., and T.R. Angradi. 1996. Decomposition and nutrient dynamics of hardwood leaf litter in the Fernow Whole-Watershed Acidification Experiment. Forest Ecology and Management 83:61-69.

Gilliam, F.S., and M.B. Adams. 1996. Wetfall deposition and precipitation chemistry for a central Appalachian forest. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 46:978-984.

Gilliam, F.S., M.B. Adams, and B.M. Yurish. 1996. Ecosystem nutrient responses to chronic nitrogen inputs at Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 196-205.

Peterjohn, W.T., M.B. Adams, and F.S. Gilliam. 1996. Symptoms of nitrogen saturation in two central Appalachian hardwood forest ecosystems. Biogeochemistry 35:507-522.


Adams, M.B., J.N. Kochenderfer, T.R. Angradi, and P.J. Edwards. 1995. Nutrient budgets of two watersheds on the Fernow Experimental Forest. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Fosbroke, Sandra L. C., ed. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV.: Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 119-130

Dubey, T., S.L. Stephenson, and P.J. Edwards. 1995. Dimilin effects on leaf-decomposing aquatic fungi on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Fosbroke, Sandra L. C., ed. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV.: Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 421-429

Fu, H., S.J. Tajchman, J.N. Kochenderfer. 1995. Topography and radiation exchange of a mountainous watershed. .Journal of Applied Meteorology 34:890-901.

Gilliam, F.S., and M.B. Adams. 1995. Plant and soil nutrients in young versus mature central Appalachian hardwood stands. In: Gottschalk, Kurt W.; Fosbroke, Sandra L. C., ed. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference; 1995 March 5-8; Morgantown, WV.: Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-197. Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 109-118

Gilliam, F.S., N.L. Turrill, and M.B. Adams. 1995. Herbaceous-layer and overstory species in clear-cut and mature central Appalachian hardwood forests. Ecological Applications 5:947-955.

Tajchman, S.J., H. Fu, J.N. Kochenderfer, and C. Pan. 1995. Spatial characteristics of topography, energy exchange, and forest cover in a central Appalachian watershed. Proceedings, 10th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. USDA Forest Service Northeast Forest Experimental Station General Technical Report NE-197.


Adams, M.B., J.N. Kochenderfer,F. Wood, T. Angradi, and P.J. Edwards. 1994. Forty years of hydrometeorological data from the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-184. Radnor PA.

Gilliam, F.S., N.L. Turrill, S.D. Aulick, D.K. Evans, and M.B. Adams. 1994. Herbaceous layer and soil response to experimental acidification in a central Appalachian hardwood forest. Journal of Environmental Quality 23:835-844.

Stoddard, J.L. 1994. Long-term changes in watershed retention of nitrogen: Its causes and aquatic consequences. Pages 223–282 in LA Baker, ed. Environmental Chemistry of Lakes and Reservoirs. Washington (DC):American Chemical Society.


Edwards, P.J., and F. Wood. 1993. Field and laboratory quality assurance/quality control protocols and accomplishments for the Fernow Experiment Forest watershed acidification study. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-177. Radnor, PA: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 15 p..

Gilliam, F.S., and N.L. Turrill. 1993. Herbaceous layer cover and biomass in a young versus a mature stand of central Appalachian hardwood forest. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 120:445-450.

Hornbeck, J.W., M.B. Adams, E.S. Corbett, E.S. Verry, and J.A. Lynch. 1993. Long-term impacts of forest treatments on water yield: a summary for northeastern USA. Journal of Hydrology 150:323-344.


DeWalle, D.R., B.R. Swistock, R.G. Sayre, and W.E. Sharpe. 1991. Spatial variations of sapwood chemistry with soil acidity in Appalachian forests. Journal of Environmental Quality 20:486-491.

Edwards, P.J., and J.D. Helvey. 1991. Long-term ionic increases from a central Appalachian forested watershed. Journal of Environmental Quality 20:250-255.

1980-1989 Back to top


Helvey, J.D., J.N. Kochenderfer, and P.J. Edwards. 1989. Effects of forest fertilization on selected ion concentrations in central appalachian streams. Proceedings, 7th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. USDA Forest Service North Central Forest Experimental Station General Technical Report NC-132.


Helvey, J.D., and S.H. Kunkle. 1986. Input-output budgets of selected nutrients on an experimental watershed near Parsons, West Virginia. USDA Forest Service Res. Paper NE-584. Broomall, PA.

Timble, G.R., E.H. Tryon, H.C. Smith, and J.D. Hillier. 1986. Age and stem origin of Appalachian hardwood reproduction follwoing a clearcut and herbicide treatment. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NE-589. Broomall, PA.


DeWalle, D.R., G.C. Ribblett, J.D. Helvey, and J.N. Kochenderfer. 1985. Laboratory investigation of leachate chemistry from six Appalachian forest floor types subjected to simulated acid rain. Journal of Enviornmental Quality 14:234-240.


Kochenderfer, J.N., and G.W. Wendel. 1983. Plant succession and hydrologic recovery on a deforested and herbicided watershed. Forest Science 29:545-558.

1970-1979 Back to top


Brenneman, B.B., D.J. Frederick, W.E. Gardner, L.H. Schoenhofen, and P.L. Marsh. 1978. Biomass of species and stands of West Virginia hardwoods. Pages 159-178 in Proceedings, Central Hardwood Forest Conference II, 14-16 November 1978, West Lafaayette, Indiana.


Auchmoody, L.R., and H.C. Smith. 1977. Response of yellow-poplar and red oak to fertilization in West Virginia. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 41:803-807.

Timble, G.R. 1977. A history of the Fernow Experimental Forest and the Parsons Timber and Watershed Laboratory. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Report NE-28. Upper Darby, PA.


Aubertin, G.M., and J.H. Patric. 1974. Water quality after clearcutting a small watershed in West Virginia. Journal of Environmental Quality 3:243-249.


Patric, J.H. 1973. Deforestation effects on soil moisture, streamflow, and water balance in the central Appalachians. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NE-259. Upper Darby, PA.


Patric, J.H., and K.G. Reinhart. 1971. Hydrologic effects of deforesting two mountain watersheds in West Virginia. Water Resources Research 7:1182-1188.

1960-1969 Back to top

Reinhart, K.G., A.R. Eschner, G.R. Trimble. 1963. Effect on streamflow of four forest practices in the mountains of West Virginia.  Res. Pap. NE-1. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 79 p.

1950-1959 Back to top

Reinhart, K.G. 1958. Calibration of five small forested watersheds. Transactions, American Geophysical Union 38: 933-936.

Weitzman, S. 1953. Five years of research on the Fernow Experimental Forest. Station Paper NE-61. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 1-44