Cann, Sherman, & Elkes, 1975

Study 1


Initially, a subject was asked to comply with one of two requests- either small or large. Then, a second request was made either immediately after the first request, or 7-10 days later.(This made up four experimental groups) The fifth group heard only the second request.

SMALL REQUEST: Would you answer a few simple questions on your family's driving status?
LARGE REQUEST: Would you assist in collecting information for two hours,standing on the side of the road, recording traffic information?
After one of these questions, a subsequent question was asked, either immediately or 7-10 days later.
SUBSEQUENT QUESTION: Could we send you 15 pamphlets promoting traffic safety, and have you pass them out?

Study 2


(same as in Study 1)

Baron, 1973

SMALL FIRST REQUEST CONDITION: Subjects were asked to accept a one page leaflet describing the dangers of air and water pollution.
MODERATE FIRST REQUEST CONDITION: Subjects were asked to sign a petitiom calling for stricter antipollution legislation and to get two friends to sign copies of the same document and then return the copies in provided stamped envelopes.
---In both conditions, the experimenters introduced themselves as members of "South Carolinians For A Clean Environment" (a fictitious association) and asked one of the two requests.
One week after the initial contact, subjects were contacted again. The experimenters again informed them of the fictitious group they were in and then asked them to comply with a request larger than the first. Subjects were asked if they would put a 3x5ft sign in their yard which read "FIGHT POLLUTION: The World You Save May Be Your Own"
At this time, a third condition entered the study: these subjects were only asked to comply to the request just discussed.

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Beaman, Svanum, Manlove, & Hampton, >The requests used in the study were via telephone. Each call was made on a week day between the hours of 10a.m. and 4p.m. Subjects were requested to answer a few questions concerning what types of soap products they used. The material was supposedly to be used in the printing of a public service guide for consumers. If the subject agreed, she was told that she would be contacted later if she was needed.


Approximately, one week later, the subjects were contacted again by different experimentors. Also, a new group was contacted as a control group who didn't receive the initial request. A modeling sentence was inserted into some of the telephone conversations stating, "So far half of the people we contacted have been willing to do this." This was the low reactance condition. The high reactance condition heard this insertion:"If you are a concerned citizen at all I know you will help us."

Cann, Sherman, & Elkes, 1975

Initially, a subject was asked to comply with one of two requests- either small or large. Then, a second request was made either immediately after the first request, or 7-10 days later.(This made up four experimental groups) The fifth group heard only the second request.

SMALL REQUEST: Would you answer a few simple questions on your family's driving status?
LARGE REQUEST: Would you assist in collecting information for two hours,standing on the side of the road, recording traffic information?
After one of these questions, a subsequent question was asked, either immediately or 7-10 days later.
SUBSEQUENT QUESTION: Could we send you 15 pamphlets promoting traffic safety, and have you pass them out?
Cialdini, & Ascani, 1976"

Cialdini, & Ascani, 1976

CONTROL CONDITION/ CRITICAL REQUEST ONLY: Subjects were directly asked to comply with a request (give 1 pint of blood at a blood drive tomorrow).

FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR/ MINIMAL-THEN-CRITICAL REQUEST:

Subjects were askedto perform a small task (take a card which advertises blood services anddisplay it somewhere- like car window). If they complied, which alldid, they were asked to do something larger (donate 1 pint of bloodat the blood drive). DOOR-IN-THE-FACE/ EXTREME-THEN-CRITICAL REQUEST: Subjects were askedfirst if they would perform a large task (become a long- term donor ofblood, give blood every 2 months for 3 years). If they declined, which all did, they were asked a smaller favor (give blood at the blood drive tomorrow).


Cialdini, Cacioppo, Bassett, & Miller, 1978

CONTROL CONDITION: Subjects were asked to participate in a charitableact (hang up posters for charity). They were also told that they would also have to do something of more cost (go pick the posters up).

LOW-BALL CONDITION: Subjects were firts asked to do a chariable act (hang posters). If they agreed, they were then informed that they wouldhave to do something of more cost (go pick up posters).

FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR CONDITION: Subjects were asked to do the charitableact of hanging posters that the experimenter had with him. If they complied, the experimenter then told them that he, in fact, did nothave a poster with him and that in order to hang posters, they would have to go pick them up.


Foss & Dempsey: Study 2, 1979

No specific messages were listed for this study.

Dejong, 1981

Messages used for the first phone call were: "Hello, is Mr./Mrs. ____ home? My name is ____, and I'm from the Greater Boston Civic Club, and we're conducting a survey on the quality of life in the Boston suburbs. I'm calling you tonight to ask if you could spend a couple of minutes answering five short yes/no questions concerning your impression of what it is like to live in the Boston suburbs". examples of questions are: "Do you feel there are enough cultural opportunities in the Boston area?" and "Do you feel there are enough fast food restaurants in the Boston area?".

Subjects in the consensus group were told at the end of the survey, "Of the 51 people called so far you are the 48th person who has agreed to participate in our survey. We appreciate your cooperation." Those in the nonconsensus group were made to feel unique in their cooperation: "Thank you very much for your time. Of the 51 people I have called so far you are only the fourth person who has agreed to participate in our survey. We appreciate your cooperation." Subjects in the no information group were thanked in a similar manner, but they were told nothing about how others had responded to the request.

Second Message for the return call was: "Hello, Mr./Mrs.____. My name is ____, and I'm from the Committee to Keep New England Beautiful. Our group is conducting a survey concerning the public's use of state parks, beaches, and recreational facilities. This survey will take around 10 minutes, and I'd like to know if you'd be willing to participate". Subjects willing to participate were merely asked to compile a list of local residents wishing to participate. They were told the survey would be conducted in the near future.

Dejong & Funder, 1977

The message used with an incentive was, "Hello, this is ____, and I'm from the Palo Alto Civic Club, and we're conducting a survey on life in the Palo Alto area. We have the money to pay you $2, and we were hoping you would answer 15 questions about living in Palo Alto so we could use the information in our survey. Could you spare just a few minutes to help us out? We will pay you $2 if you could do this for us." The second message was, "Hello, my name is ____, from the Citizens' Committee for Traffic Safety, and we were calling you today to ask if you would be willing to aid us in our survey by answering 50 questions over the telephone concerning your attitudes toward highway safety and driving regulations. Would you be willing to cooperate with us in our survey?"


Fish & Kaplan, 1974

No messages are provided by the authors. However, the messages were related to poverty problems in the Detriot community.


Foss & Dempsey Study 1, 1979

Two female experimeners were asked to individually approach selected rooms between 6 p.m. and 10 p.m. and make the following request: Hi, my name is ______, and I am working as a volunteer for the Red Cross. Our bloodmobile is to be here next week (on Tuesday) (tomorrow) and Wednesday from 12:00 to 6:00 p.m. Would you help us advertise its visit by putting this on your door? The next experimenter then took the subject's name, recorded his or her sex, and thanked them for ther help. If the person did not cooperate, they were thanked for taking the time to listen.

Foss & Dempsey Study 2, 1979

Subjects were asked to answer few questions about blood donation. If they agreed, they were asked five questiones including if they had ever donated blood. There were no explicit messages in the article.


Foss & Dempsey Study 3, 1979

There were no explicit messages stated in this paper. However, subjects were asked about their knowledge of and experience with blood donation.

Freedman & Fraser Study 1, 1966

At the time of the first contact, the experimenter introduced himself by name and told the subjects that he was from the California Consumers' Group. The messages were as follows: "We are calling you this morning to ask if you would answer a number of questiones about household products you use so that we can have this information for our public service publication, "The Guide." "Would you be willing to give us this information for our survey?" If the subjects agreed, questiones dealing with household soap were asked.

Freedman & Fraser Study 2, 1966

The small-sign condition and the safe-driving condition were told that the experimenter was from the Community Committee for Traffic Safety, that he was visiting a number of homes in attempt to make the citizens more aware of the need to drive carefully all the time and that he would like the subject to take a small sign and put it on the car window or on the car so that it will serve as a reminder of the need to drive carefully. The sign said "Be a Safe Driver" and looked rather amateurish and unattractive. The other three experimental conditions were approached by researchers that identified themselves as the Keep California Beautiful Committee and the sign said "Keep California Beautiful."

Furse, Stewart, & Rados, 1981

The article did not provide the actual messages used in the mail survey or the telephone interviews. All members of the sample mailed questionnaires on attitudes and usage of long distance telephone services, demographic characteristics of the respondent, and several promotional and advertising concepts. The subjects in group 3 were contacted by telephone prior to the receipt of the survey and asked to answer a brief series of agree/disagree questions about telephone usage patterns.

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Hansen & Robinson, 1980

The questiones that wereasked during the interview focused on how the person felt about some issues at hand (i.e. "all car dealers overcharge for repair work"). Subjects were also asked if they had bought a new car within the last three years.

Harris, 1972

The participants were stopped on the street and asked "Could you please give me a dime?" and "Excause me, I wonder if you could tell me what time it is?" and "Excause me, could you tell me how to get to Central Avenue?"

Harris, Liguori & Stack, 1973

Favor condition were asked: "Would you do us the favor of trying one of our cookies and tell us how you like it. Your honest opinion would be most appreciated." The subjects in the Bribe conditon were told: "Here, we would like to give you one of our cookies made especially in this shape and color to remind people of ecology and to thank you for being such a good listener." The subjects in the Control condition were told: "When we have our sale, how many cookies could you contribute or, if you prefer, how much money could you donate?"

Harris & Samerotte, 1976

Experiment 1

Initial request

Excuse me, could you please watch these (indicating a textbook, a notebook and a 3" by 4.75" Zenith portable radio in a black case) for a few minutes?

Second request

Say, I'm hungary and I haven't any money. Could you give me $.50 for ______? Depending upon high or low need it was for milk and a sandwich or coke and a piece of cake respectively.

Surprise statement

My radio is gone! Someone must have taken it!

Experiment 2

Initial request was identical to that used in experiment 1.

Second request

I've forgotten my wallet and I have to Xerox this seven page article, (pointing to an article in a histroy periodical he was carrying), could you give me $.50 (copying charges in the library were $.07 per page.)

Third request

Could you give me anything?

Reingen & Kernan, 1979

Critical-request-only message for control group condition

Hello, Mr. (Mrs. or Miss) ______, my name is _______ from the Market Research Corporation. Our organization is currently interested in collecting information about consumer reaction to cars. The information obtained will be used to market a new line of cars. The questions we have are too many to be asked over the phone. However, we would like to send you a 6-page questionnaire to fill out. We would of course provide a stamped return envelope. Would you be willing to help us with this survey?

Small-initial-request condition

Hello, Mr. (Mrs. or Miss) _____, my name is _______ from the Market Research Corporation. Our organization is currently interested in collecting information about consumer reaction to soft drinks. The information obtained will be used to market a new line of soft drinks. Would you mind answering four short questions for us?

Large-initial-request condition

Heloo, Mr. (Mrs. or Miss) ______, my name is _____ from the Market Research Corporation. Our organization is currently interested in collecting information about consumer reaction to soft drinks. The information obtained will be used to market a bew line of soft drinks. We would like to know if you would be willing to assist us. This would involve your spending about three hours for one night for a personal interview with us at your home. would you be willing to help us with this survey?

Reingen & Kernan, 1977

(Initial Request)

Hello, my name is ______, of the Market Research Corporation. We are in the process of compling research that will be used to market a new line of products. we are calling to ask if you would be willing to answer ___ questions over the telephone about products used in your household. (For A and B subjects: Because this information is so valuable to us, we will see to it that you receive a $5 gift certificate for the department store of your choice.) Would you be willing to help us with this survey?

(Subsequent Request)

Hello, my name is _____, from the Consumer Research Division of S&M Industries. We are currently doing research on consumer reaction to various products that are presently on the market. We are calling to ask if you would be willing to answerr 20 questions over the telephone concerning products you use in your household. Would you be willing to aid us in the survey?

The Next Study

More interesting stuff and bother here.

Pliner, etal., 1974

Small prior request. Explaining that one was from the Cancer Society, the person asked the person answering the door if he or she would wear a plastic daffodil lapel pin the next day to publicize the fund drive. When the individual agreed, he or she was thanked and given a lapel pin to wear.

Moderate prior request. Same conditions as above except the person answering the door was asked to not only wear the pin themselves the next day, but persuade another to do so as well.

No prior request. Subjects received only the large second request of monetary donation.

Standard message of large second request. Hello my name is _____, and I'm canvassing for the Cancer Society. would you like to make a contribution?

The Next Study

Reingen, 1978

Donation-Request-Only Control Condition
As part of our annual campus fund-raising drive, I'm collecting money for the Heart association. Would you be willing to help by giving a single donation?

Small-Then-Donation-request Condition
We're currently doing a survey on what people think of the Heart Association. Would you mind answering four short questions for us? [If the subject agreed, the experimenter posed four Heart Association-related questions (e.g.; "have you heard of the Heart Association?"), and recorded the responses the subject gave. After completion of the survey, the experimenter continued.] There is also another way you could help us if you'd like. As part of our annual campus fund-raising drive.....

Extreme-Then-Donation Request Condition
As part of our annual campus fund-raising drive, we're currently asking students to become involved in our Long Term Donor Program. Long term donors are those students who pledge to give three dollars per month for a period of at least 12 months. Would you be willing to enroll in our Long Term Donor Program? [After the subject declined, the experimenter continued.] Well, maybe you'd be interested in another activity we're asking students to participate in. I'm also collecting money....

Even-A-Penny Condition
Subjects were asked the direct request for funds followed with: Even a penny will help.

Small-Then-Donation Request, Even-A-Penny Condition
Subjects receive the small-then-donation request message followed with: Even a penny will help.

Extreme-Then-Donation Request, Even-A-Penny Condition
Subjects receive the extreme-then-donation request message followed with: Even a penny will help.

Volunteer-request-Only Control Condition
As part of our annual fund-raising drive, the Heart Association is looking for volunteers to solicit funds from the public. Would you be interested in becoming a Heart Association fund-raising volunteer?

Rittle, 1981

The message expressed by the confederate, white, young, male,child was; "could you please get it for me." With reference to the child having, correctly inserted the two dimes into the coin slot, desiring candy or a soft drink.


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SRS Theory Topics


Seligman, Bush, & Kirsch

The initial request message included the following statement: Hello , my name is ______________. A group of students at ___________ University will be starting a recycling program in a few weks, and we would like to start some publicity for it. Would you be will to display this sign in your window this week? The sign read: CONSERVE RESOURCES-RECYCLE. The sign was : 71/2 by 91/2 inches, in dimensions.

The moderate and large second request message was: Hello, my name is __________________. A group of students at _____________ University are concerned that ecology issues will be forgotten during this energy crisis. We are going to be mailing out publicity leaflets to residents of the Chicago area. It seems more personal if envelopes were handwritten, and we need help from people like yourself if the project is to succeed. Would you be willing to help us out by addressing (25,27) envelopes for us? Just put the envelopes in this big self-addressed envelope, send it to us, and we will stuff and mail them.


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SRS Theory Topics


Scott,1976

Initial message: Hello, my name is __________. A group of students at _________ University will be starting a recycling program in a few weeks and we would like to start some publicity for it. Would you be willing to display this sign in your window this week? The sign was 7.5 by 9.5 inches reading "CONSERVE RESOURCES-RECYCLE." Moderate and Large Second Request: Hello, my name is __________. A group of students at _________ University are concerned that ecology issues will be forgotten during this energy crisis. We are going to be mailing out publicity leaflets to residents of the Chicago area. It seems more personal if envelopes were handwritten, and we need help from people like yourself if the project is to succeed. Would you be willing to help us out by addressing (25, 75) envelopes for us? Just put the envelopes in this big self-addressed envelope, send it to us, and we will stuff and mail them.

Tybout, 1978

The requests were the same for Experiment 1 as well as Experiment 2. The small request was: "We are looking for people who are willing to serve as supporters of the new prepaid health plan. a supporter is simply an individual who has seen the film and thinks that the plan is a good one. If you are willing to be a supporter, we will put your name on our list of supporters. This list will be used to show other people in the community that many of their neighbors support the prepaid plan. If you are willing to give us permission to use your name as a supporter, please mark yes on this form and sign your name." The second request was that they enroll in the new prepaid health plan.

Wagener & Laird, 1980 In the questionnaire-first group, the experimenter handed out the questionnaire and said, "I would really appreciate it if you wouldtake the time to fill out this questionnaire." Both the questionnaire-first group and the control group, the experimenter said, "We are trying to get together a list of students who areinterested in participating in a psychology experiment over thecourse of the next few weeks. The experiment you will be asked toparticipate in will be described to you when the experimenter callsyou to make arrangements to be in his study. If you areinterested, please put your name on one of these white cards I'llbe giving to you."


Zuckerman, Lazzaro, & Waldgeir, 1979

The small request message for the pay group was:"Hello, my name is ___________ and I'm doing a survey for theBureau of Civic Safety. We are calling you today to ask if youwould be willing to aid us in our study of pedestrian and motorsafety by answering a 5 minute questionnaire over the telephone. We would appreciate it very much if you would participate becausewe do depend on people's good will. This study is being funded andif you will participate, you will be paid $1.50. Would you bewilling to cooperate in this survey?"The small request message for the non-pay group was identical tothe pay group, minus the sentence concerning the study beingfunded.

The larger request was:"Hello, my name is _______________ and I'm doing a survey for theConsumer's Interest Group and I'm compiling a guide to aidconsumers. I'm calling you today to ask if you would be willingto participate in a 25 minute questionnaire over the telephone.