FITD Dimensions: Measurement


Cann, Sherman, & Elkes, 1975

Study 1


Compliance with initial requests and subsequent(or moderate)requests were both measured to find if request size or timing had an effect on compliance, and to test if there was interaction between the two factors.


Cann, Sherman, & Elkes, 1975

Study 2


(same as Study 1)



Baron, 1973

In both request conditions, the experimenters tried to elicit a definite "yes" or "no" from the subjects. These responses from initial requests were recorded and analyzed in comparison to the large request responses (including the control condition responses).
On the second approach, if subjects agreed, they were thanked and told when the sign would be delivered. If they said no, they were thanked for their courtesy in listening to the request.


Beaman, Svanum, Manlove, & Hampton, 1974

In the study, rate of compliance to the high reactance and low reactance messages was measured as the effect of attribution on the compliance-gaining strategy of foot-in-the-door.


Cialdini, & Ascani, 1976

Verbal compliance, behavioral compliance, and subsequent help complianceto the critical request were summed in each of the experimental conditions:
Verbal compliancewas measured by keeping track of the people in each condition who said they would give 1 pint of blood.
Behavioral compliance was measured by checking to see if the people who verbally complied actually showed up at the blood drive to donate blood.
Subsequent help compliance was measured by asking those who gave blood if they would do it again and how often.

Cialdini, Cacioppo, Bassett, & Miller, 1978

For each group, the amount of verbal compliance, and behavioral compliance was summed for both requests.


Dejong, 1981

The article did not reveal its measures. The hypothesis measured was that informing subjects that they are relatively unique in their compliance with the first request will serve to augment the likelihood of their compliance in later requests.


Dejong & Funder, 1977

No measures were specified by the authors. Subjects were asked survey questions.


Fish & Kaplan, 1974

Open-ended questions were utilized as a measure for this study. Individualized envelopes and fill out sheets were used to ensure privacy for the responses. All contributions and list of names were turned over to the Detroit welfare agency.


Foss & Dempsey Study 1, 1979

Verbal compliance was asessed by counting the subject's "yes" and "no" responses. Behavioral compliance was asessed by comparing lists of those who actually donated blood and of those who only complied with the initial request.


Foss & Dempsey Study 2, 1979

People who answered "yes" to the verbal request were recorded as complying with the initial request. Those who actually donated blood were recorded as complying with the critical request.


Foss & Dempsey Study 3, 1979

Measurement was based on observations of how many complied with the initial request, the poster request, and the critical request and actually came and donated blood.


Freedman & Fraser Study 1, 1966

The measurement was simply whether or not subjects agreed to a large request. Researchers observed and recorded their results.


Freedman & Fraser Study 2, 1966

Researchers observed subjects compliance.


Furse, Stewart, & Rados, 1981

Open-ended questions were utilized as a measure for this study.


Hansen & Robinson, 1980

Researchers observed subjects responses.


Harris, 1972

Measurements were conducted by observation. The dependent measure used was a request for dime.


Harris, Liguori & Stack, 1973

The experimenters observed their subjects' responses.


Harris & Samerotte, 1976

Experiment 1

Initial request

Excuse me, could you please watch these (indicating a textbook, a notebook and a 3" by 4.75" Zenith portable radio in a black case) for a few minutes?

Second request

Say, I'm hungary and I haven't any money. Could you give me $.50 for ______? Depending upon high or low need it was for milk and a sandwich or coke and a piece of cake respectively.

Surprise statement

My radio is gone! Someone must have taken it!

Experiment 2

Initial request was identical to that used in experiment 1.

Second request

I've forgotten my wallet and I have to Xerox this seven page article, (pointing to an article in a histroy periodical he was carrying), could you give me $.50 (copying charges in the library were $.07 per page.)

Third request

Could you give me anything?


Harris & Samerotte, 1976

Experiment 1

The study utilized a 5X2 factorial design and a chi square test on number of donations. There were five theft conditions (Stop Thief Same, Stop Thief Different, Thief Same, Thief Different, and Control), each with half the subjects in the high need category and half in the low need. The dependent measures consisted of the percentages of subjects donating and the amounts of money donated.

Experiment 2

The study utilized the chi square statistic to analyze the percentages of donations and an analysis of variance on the amounts of money given. There were five conditions. Stop Thief Same, Stop Thief Different, No Thief Same, No Thief Different, and Control. The dependent measures consisted of the number of people donating and the amount of money donated.


Reingen & Kernan, 1979

Group 1) the critical-request-only )initial telephone contact) control condition had an N of 106. Group 2) the small-initial-request condition had an N of 118. Group 3) the Large-initial-request condition had an N of 96. Group 4) the critical-request-only ( no telephone contact) conrol condition had an N of 61.

A chi square analysis comparing the subjects who received the small initial request with those receiving the large initial request was utilized. One-tailed z tests were performed to assess verbal and behavioral compliance.


Reingen & Kernan, 1977

After selecting the participants and grouping them the measurement design yielded the following numbers: Group A recieving $5 and high request 35 questions had an N of 25. Group B recieving $5 and low request 5 questions had an N of 25. Group C receiving no incentive and high request 35 questions had an N of 28. Group D receiving no incentive and low request 5 questions had an N o 24. The second request for those agreeing to participate occured seven to nine days later with all groups including the control group receiving a 20 question request size. Specific statistical analysis measures utilzed to test hypotheses were one-tailed tests of z and p values.


Pliner, et al., 1974

The final number of houses in each of the conditions was: No prior request, 35; Small prior request, 27; Moderate prior request, 26. Chi square tests were conducted to analyze the significance of prior requests on donation. F statistic was utilized to assess the amounts of money donated by subjects in each of the experimental conditions.


Reingen, 1978

A chi square analysis on frequency of donation and amount within each condition was performed. All chi square tests were corrected for continuity.

A 3X2 ANOVA was performed in regards to mean donation for complying subjects.


Rittle, 1981

The measurement was conducted to establish the relationship between the abilities and attitudes of people. The first measure used was the Wechler Ault Intelligence Scale of Similarities and Arithmetic tests. The second measure was a test of visual reaction time. Six trials were administered using a Lafayette four-choice reaction time apparatus, Model 63035; reaction times were measured on a Lafayette digital clock.

Following these ability tests, subjects were administered a self-report questionnaire. The subject compared himself to other college students on five characteristics for questions 1-5. Subjects responded on a 15-point scale.

Instructions to the attitude questionnaire stressed, that while, probably high in intelligence, subjects might be average or below average in comparison to other college students. The second page of the questionnaire measured subjects' opinions regarding three social situations. Subjects responded on a 15-point scale.

The subject was next given a postexperimental questionnaire. It contained two questions on which subjects described the purpose of the study as they understood it, as well as anything that seemed unusual.

The final measure was a large request by the experimenter, for volunteers to measure a child's social skills, during the last week of term. The subject's compliance with this request was defined as the number of hours for which he signed up.


Seligman, Bush, & Kirsch, 1976

The major dependent measure concerns the degree of compliance with the second request. The number of subjects complying with the first request in the 5, 20, 30, and 45-question conditions was 21 out of 24 (87.5%), 16 of 2 4 (66.7%), 18 of 21 (85.7%), and, 21 of 24 (87.5%), respectively. The overall chi-square test was not statistically significant, showing that the experimental conditions did not differ with respect to compliance with the first request . The number of subjects complying with the second request in the control, 5, 20, 30, and 45-question conditions was 8 of 26 (30.7%), 8 of 21 (38.1%), 8 of 23 (34.8%), 14 of 19 (73.7%), and, 17 of 23 (73.9%), respectively. The chi-square was statistically significant.


Scott, 1976

No Data Available.


Tybout, 1978

All questionnaires as well as requests were made face-to-face. In experiment 1, two of the 107 participants refused to comply with the small request. In experiment 2, three of the 42 participants refused to comply with the small request.


Wagener & Laird, 1980

The small request was to respond to a brief questionnaire during a class period; the large request was for a lengthy experimentalsession not during class time.


Zuckerman, Lazzaro, & Waldgeir, 1979

The messages were all presented over the phone by one of two female experimenters. One subject in the pay group and three subjects in the no-pay group refused to comply with the first request.


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Created February 23,1996; Last updated February 27, 1996.