DITF Messages


Cialdini & Ascani, 1976

The message that was presented to the control group stated:

"We have our annual university blood drive right here on campus tomorrow. We're asking students to come to our center here on campus and donate just one unit of blood sometime between 8:00 A.M. and 3:30 P.M. tomorrow. Would you be willing to volunteer just one unit of blood to our drive? (If the subject refused, the experimenter thanked the subject and moved on. If a subject consented, the experimenter took his/her name and phone number; this represented the measure of verbal compliance for the study. The experimenter then provided the subject with an informational brochure and a donation appointment time for the next day.)

The message that was presented to the experimental group stated:


"We're asking students to help advertise our cause by taking one of these little cards (the card contained the local blood services organization logo) and displaying it somewhere, like on a window or on a door or even on a book, where people can see it. (After the suject agreed, the experimenter continued.) Thanks. There's also another way that you can help us if you'ld like. (The remainder of the message was identical to that of the control.)

The message that was presented to the extreme request group stated:

"We're currently sking students to become involved in our long-term donors program. Long-term donors who pledge to give one unit of blood once every 2 months for a period of at least 3 years. THis wasy we can be sure of a continual supply of blood. Would you be willing to enroll in our long-term donor program? (After the subject declined) Oh, well, maybe you would be interested in another program that we're asking students to participate in (the rest continued as in the minimal request group).


Even-Chen, Yinon, & Bizman:Study 1, 1978

Small request messages consisted of:

"Excuse me for a moment, I am from the National Council for the Prevention of Auto-Accidents. The council is interested in distributing information among people concerning its plans and activities. Would you be willing to come to our office in Tel-Aviv (20 min. Drive from the University) to pick up at least 15 brochures for distributing among your friends?"

Moderate request messages consisted of:

"Excuse me for a moment, I am from the National Council for the Prevention of Auto-Accidents. The council is interested in collecting some data on transportation for its various research projects. Would you be willing to volunteer to observe for 2 hours (3-5 PM) the traffic in a certain intersection (the spot was specified), recording the traffic violations performed by the drivers?"

Large request messages consisted of:

"Excuse me for a moment, I am from the National Council for the Prevention of Auto-Accidents. The major goal of the council is to discover and investigate ways and means which will reduce the number of auto-accidents in the country. Thus, the council is interested in training a large team of volunteers who will be engaged in guidance and propaganda on the topic of accident prevention among small groups of drivers and pedestrians. Would you be willing to join this team voluntarily, and work at least 2 hours per week for 2 years?"


Even-Chen, Yinon, & Bizman:Study 2, 1978

Small request messages consisted of:
"Excuse me for a moment, I am from the National Council for the Prevention of Auto-Accidents. The council is interested in distributing information among people concerning its plans and activities. Would you be willing to come to our office in Tel-Aviv (20 min. Drive from the University) to pick up at least 15 brochures for distributing among your friends?"

Moderate request messages consisted of:
"Excuse me for a moment, I am from the National Council for the Prevention of Auto-Accidents. The council is interested in collecting some data on transportation for its various research projects. Would you be willing to volunteer to observe for 2 hours (3-5 PM) the traffic in a certain intersection (the spot was specified), recording the traffic violations performed by the drivers?"

Large request messages consisted of:
"Excuse me for a moment, I am from the National Council for the Prevention of Auto-Accidents. The major goal of the council is to discover and investigate ways and means which will reduce the number of auto-accidents in the country. Thus, the council is interested in training a large team of volunteers who will be engaged in guidance and propaganda on the topic of accident prevention among small groups of drivers and pedestrians. Would you be willing to join this team voluntarily, and work at least 2 hours per week for 6 months?"


Foss & Dempsey: Study 3, 1979

No specific messages were listed for this study.


Goldman & Creason, 1981

The experimenter called subjects and stated: "Hello, my name is Chris Walters. I am calling on behalf of KCST, a new radio station in the area. We are attempting to do a survey concerning radio programming and we need volunteers."

The concession factor was then introduced and either the two,one, or control concession condition was run. Two Concession:

"Would you be willing to call 150 names picked at random from the telephone directory?"

One Face & Question #2 in Two Face:

"Well, would you be willing to call 100 names?"

Target Request (Final request in all 3 conditions.)

Fixed Condition: "Well, would you be willing to make 25 phone calls?"

Self-Determined: "Well, would you be willing to help, and if so how many names would you be willing to call?"


Miller et al, 1976

Yielding plus gaining condition

The initial request

"Hi, I'm ----- and I'm working for Dr. ----- in the Psychology Department. He's co-ordinating a volunteer mental health program to be staffed by non-professionals. We're recruiting students to work as voluntary unpaid counsellors (or clerical office workers) in a community health agency. The position would require two hours of your time per week for a minimum of two years. You would be assisting regular staff members in their duties (or filing and doing general clerical work). Would you like to be considered for such a position?"

The second request

"Well, I'm also recruiting volunteers for another position which would entail two hours once on a single afternoon or evening working as a voluntary unpaid clerical office worker (or counsellor) in a mental health agency. Would you like to be considered for such a position?"

Yielding-only and gaining-only initial request.

"Hi, I'm ----- and I'm working for Dr. ----- in the Psychology Department. He's co-ordinating a volunteer mental health program to be staffed by non-professionals. We're recruiting students to work as voluntary unpaid clerical office workers (or counsellors) in a community mental health agency for two hours once on a single afternoon or evening. You would be filing and doing general clerical work (or assisting regular staff members in their work). Would you like to be considered for such a position?"

Yielding-only second request.

"Well, I'm also recruiting volunteers for another position which is not as advantageous to me to fill, but equally important to the program. This would entail two hours of voluntary unpaid work as a counsellor (or clerical office worker) in the community mental health agency for an afternoon or evening. Would you like to be considered for this position?"

Gaining-only second request.

"Well, I'm also recruiting volunteers for another position which is equally important to me to fill and is easier for you to do. This would entail two hours of voluntary unpaid work as a counsellor (or clerical office worker) in the mental health agency for an afternoon or evening. Would you like to be considered for this position?"

Control condition

"Hi, I'm ----- and I'm working for Dr. ----- in the Psychology Department. He's co-ordinating a volunteer mental health program to be staffed by non-professionals. We're recruiting students to work as avoluntary unpaid counsellors (or clerical office workers) in a community mental health agency for two hours once on a single afternoon or evening. Would you like to be considered for such a position?"


Mowen & Cialdini, Study I, 1980

"Hello, I'm doing a survey for the California Mutual Insurance Company. For each of the last 12 years, we have been on campus to gather survey information on safety in the home or dorm. The survey takes about an hour, right now, to answer the questions?" (In very large conditions 2 hours was substituted) After declining the experimenter would say, "Oh...well, look, one part of the survey is fairly short. It will take only 15 minutes to administer. If you could take 15 minutes right now to complete this short survey, it would really help us out." (Help emphasized condition) In the help not emphasized condition, the same message was shortened to exclude the sentence including "it would really help us out."


Reingen, 1978

In the portion of this study where a door-in-the-face technique was studied, the following were the messages used:

Extreme-Then-Donation Request Condition

"As part of our annual campus fund-raising drive, we're currently asking students to become involved in our Long Term Donor Program. Long term donors are those students who pledge to give three dollars per month for a period of at least 12 months. Would you be willing to enroll in our Long Term Donor Program? (After the subject declined, the experimenter continued.) We'll maybe you'd be interested in another activity we're asking students to participate in. I'm also collecting money for the Heart Association. Would you be willing to help by giving a single donation?

Extreme-Then-Donation Request, Even-A-Penny Condition

Subjects were administered the procedure idnetical to that of the extreme-then-donation request condition, except that "Even a penny will help" was added to the donation request. (All subjects but one refused to comply with the extreme initial request.)


Reingen & Kernan, 1979

Critical-request-only "Hello, Mr. (Mrs. or Miss) ________, my name is ________ for the Market Research Corporation. Our organization is currently interested in collecting information about consumer reaction to cars. The information obtained will be used to market a new line of cars. The questions we have are too many to be asked over the phone. However, we would like to send you a 6-page questionnaire to fill out. We would of course provide a stamped return envelope. Would you be willing to help us with this survey?"

Large-initial-request "Hello, Mr. (Mrs. or Miss) ________, my name is ________ from the Market Research Corporation. Our organization is currently interested in collecting information about consumer reaction to soft drinks. The information obtained will be used to market a new line of soft drinks. we would like to know if you would be willing to assist us. This would involve your spending about three hours for one night for a personal interview with us at your home. Would be willing to help us with this survey?"

Critical-request-only (no initial contact) There were no messages used for this group, subjects were sent a mailing identical to that in each of the two other groups.


Shanab & Isonio, 1980

"However, before you begin, I'm looking for volunteers to help out in a study which would take 2 hours of you time each day for a duration of 3 months. Your task would be to administer punishment in the form of electric shock to human subjects whenever a subject makes a mistake in learning a list of paired associates. Would you like the participate in this study?"

Yielding-plus gaining condition "As you may recall, I am interested in what effect punishment has on learning in humans. I am now recruiting volunteers for a study investigating the effects of shock on the rate of learning in rats which would require a single 2 hour session. Your main task would be to punish rats by giving them a mild electric shock whenever they make incorrect choices in a discrimination task. Would you like to participate in this study?"

Yielding-only "As you may recall, I am interested in what effect punishment has on learning in humans. Although his work is important to me personally, I am now recruiting volunteers for a study which is of equal importance to the general research program I am involved in. This study will investigate the effects of shock on the rate of learning in rats would require a single 2 hour session. Your main task would be to punish rats by giving them a mild electric shock whenever they make incorrect choices in a discrimination task. Would you like to participate in this study?"

Gaining-only As you may recall, I am interested in what effect punishment has on learning in humans. I am now recruiting volunteers for a study that is of equal importance to me, but would be easier for you to carry out. This study will investigate the effects of shock on the rate of learning in rats would require a single 2 hour session. Your main task would be to punish rats by giving them a mild electric shock whenever they make incorrect choices in a discrimination task. Would you like to participate in this study?"

Control condition

I am recruiting volunteers to help out in a study which would require a single 2 hour session. This study will investigate the effects of shock on the rate of learning in rats would require a single 2 hour session. Your main task would be to punish rats by giving them a mild electric shock whenever they make incorrect choices in a discrimination task. Would you like to participate in this study?"


Shanab & O'Neill, 1979

Initial request "I'm looking for volunteers to help out in a study which would take two hours of your time, each day, for a duration of three months. Your main task would be to administer punishment I the form of electric shock to human subjects whenever a subject makes a mistake in learning a list of paired associates. Would you like to participate in the experiment?"

2nd request "I am also recruiting volunteers for another study investigation the effects of shock on the rate of learning in rats which would require a single two-hour session. Your main task would be to punish rats by giving them mild electric shock whenever they make incorrect choices in a discrimination task. Would you like to participate in this study?"

Yield condition "Although the first experiment is more important to me personally, I am also recruiting volunteers for another study which is of equal importance to our general research program. The experiment would require a single two-hour session. Your main task would be to punish rats by giving them mild electric shock whenever hey make incorrect choices in a discrimination task. Would you like to participate in this study?"

Gaining-only condition "I am also recruiting volunteers for another study which is of equal importance to me but would be easier for you to carry out. The experiment would require a single two-hour session. Your main task would be to punish rats by giving the mild electric shock whenever they make incorrect choices in a discrimination task. Would you like to participate in this study?"

Control condition "I am looking for volunteers to help out in a study which would require a single two-hour session. Your main task would be to punish rats by giving them a mild electric shock whenever they make incorrect choices in a discrimination task. Would you like to participate in the study?"


Schwarzwald, Raz, & Zvibel, 1979

MESSAGES NOT GIVEN


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Created February 27, 1996; Last updated February 27, 1996