Comm 80 Answers for Objectives
for Test Three

Author: Krista Farley and Steve Booth-Butterfield

1. Give the "job description" for men and women in rock videos.

2. Define stereotyping.

3. Describe the stereotyping effects from the Natural Experiment.

4. Give the main findings from Booth-Butterfield and Geatz on stereotyping and advertising.

5. Identify the two major conclusions about stereotyping.

6. Compare the miser and thinker.

Miser: careless, mindless, look at the surface
Thinker: careful, mindful, deep

7. Identify the key statistics from TV news as a teacher.

50% of America get 100% of news from TV
10% of Americans are illiterate

8. Describe how well people learn from TV news from one newscast, from one week, and over the course of a year.

1 day - 30% correct recall
1 week - 20-40% better scores for print
1 year - 30-40% correct recall of TV

9. Identify why people learn so poorly from TV.

1. complex mix of sight, sound, and text is confusing
2. many TV viewers are poorly educated to begin with
3. because you are in a natural setting of your home so you tend to relax and not pay as much attention

10. Describe Singer's research on accuracy and her main findings.

fewer than 10% of hazard stories are error-free; news media makes mistakes, it is unpredictable what is the truth

11. Define agenda and agenda-setting.

list of topics arranged in order of importance, set by media

12. Describe how to measure public and media agendas.

Public - public opinion polls
Media - number of minutes, days on front page, headline size

13. Explain the main findings of McCombs and Shaw's research.

among undecided voters, the public agenda moved to the media agenda (they saw it on TV or in the papers, then started "buzzing" about the issue); media reaction causes public reaction, we talk about what we see in the media

14. Describe Funkhouser's findings on agendas.

media sets public agenda, no relationship between statistics and media coverage such that "blood and money" are not related to media agenda (or public agenda)

15. Identify Terman's findings on the summary of agenda-setting.

over 20 different studies, large effect, first in the media then we talk about it

16. Give the three conclusions about agenda-setting.

1. media agenda comes first
2. takes a few weeks before our agenda matches media
3. doesn't tell you what to think (for or against) but what to think about

17. Define priming.

frequency and direction of message determines attitude toward topic

18. Describe the procedures in the priming studies.

one week spent in lab every evening to watch the news and fill out scales and questionnaires, replaced 3 minutes of news with manipulated news

19. Identify the key findings of the priming studies.

if you hear good news about something you think more positive about it and if you hear bad news you have negative attitudes

20. Describe how tabloids have changed elite reporting of news.

elites used to pursue truth first and audience second, while tabloids always wanted a big audience and would stretch the truth (National Enquirer) to sell papers. Elite news has now become very profitable such that audience size is becoming as important as truth and accuracy.

21. Identify examples of the effect of tabloidization.

Michael Jackson, Gennifer Flowers, Dateline-GMC Truck Fire

22. Give the four summary points about information and media.

1. changes how we think (moderate to large)
2. whether we think something is good or bad (small to moderate)
3. indirect or unintended effects
4. compare and contrast

23. Identify preventable morbidity and mortality rates.

500t deaths due to poor diet/exercise - most preventable
450t deaths due to smoking - all preventable
200t AIDS heaths since 1981 - most preventable
mils STDs - overwhelming majority preventable
10t traffic fatalities from alcohol - most preventable
40t breast cancer deaths - 1/3 preventable.

24. Describe the types of safe sex messages in the media and their impact on behavior.

negative view, oblique, unclear, rarely shows an open condom, how does it look, how do you use it, media ignores safe sex, talk about it humorously to relieve tension.

25. Identify the effects of smoking.

+50 million Americans use tobacco products
younger people much more likely to use
'92 - $45 billion is sales.

26. Describe effects of ads on smoking rates.

positive messages ---> sales increase
anti-tobacco ads ---> tobacco use decreases.

27. Give the industry code concerning tobacco ads.

1970 - agreed to stop advertising on TV yet the government also had to stop anti-smoking commercials.

28. Describe the themes tobacco ads use to sell tobacco.

geared towards women and children.

29. Describe the nutrition cultivation study and its results.

long-term uncontradicted media messages, watch a lot of TV should have different perceptions of diet because TV tends to show "bad" diet actions
found that elementary kids who watched more TV (above the average) had worse diets (large difference) and scored worse on diet quiz (moderate diff) compared to kids who watched less TV..

30. Identify who participated in Ching's study of TV and obesity.

Ching got a large sample of male health professionals to provide information concerning how much TV they watch, their exercise patterns, and their height and weight (to compute obesity from medical tables).

31. Describe the impact of watching TV on obesity according to Ching.

Amount of weekly TV viewing was related to obesity such that watching more TV was associated with more obesity. This association held even when controlling for the participants' fitness and exercise level. Thus, even among the participates who exercised the most, watching more TV was related to a greater likelihood of obesity

32. Explain the great fear (old and new versions).

Old: Hitler, skillful use of mass media, control over what the public receives
New: Perot, great amount of money can buy media coverage

33. Form the history of media and campaigns identify: the first use of any electronic media, the first use of any TV, the first political ad on TV.

1924 Radio - Calvin Coolidge, President, broadcast speeches
1928 TV - Al Smith, Gov. NY, publicity stunt
1948 Political Ad - Harry Truman, real political ad yet you don't know who it is for

34. Describe "I Love Lucy's" impact on political media.

first show to become independent, sold minutes to different companies instead of one sponsor, made a lot more money

35. Explain why 1952 marked a major turning point in political media.

selling of the presidency begins, buy time in the most popular time spot and use demographics to see where weak spots are; blueprint for modern political campaigns

36. Identify the most interesting politician of the century.

Nixon had a great resume, he won a seat in Congress in '46 and was re-elected in '48, won a senate seat in '50 and in '52 Eisenhower asked him to be his Vice-President candidate at 39 years old; then he won '68 and '72 presidential elections only to be forced to resign in '74 (Watergate)

37. Describe the "Checkers" speech and its effect.

30 min. of TV time, told people he was in debt and that his Cocker Spaniel was seen as a illegal campaign contribution; huge audience saw speech and sent millions of telegrams and cards to Republican officials to keep Nixon on the ticket

38. Describe the Contemporary Peoples' Choice model.

why do people vote the way they do? party ID, group membership, candidate image, issues and positions

39. Define polispot and the four types of polispots.

political ads; ID, Arguments, Attack, Future

40. Describe the effects of polispots.

1. use polispots to change perceptions
2. reinforce, activate, and convert
3. campaign cost - self-investment
4. weakening of party power
5. voter cynicism about selling politics
6. conditions of greatest effect - you spend a lot more than opponent and your opponent runs a stupid campaign

41. Define the attack ad and give historical examples of its use.

political message that attacks image or issue of an opponent;
Andrew Jackson was called an adulterer because his wife had married before and had a backwoods divorce
Grover Cleveland had an illegitimate child, opponents ran ads questioning if he helped raise them -"Ma Ma Ma Ma where's my Pa?"

42. Explain how inoculation works against the attack ad.

You bring up the problem before your opponent (weak attack), explain why the problem is over (active defense), which gets the audience on your side (stronger support)

43. Describe Pfau's research on inoculation and its effects.

Used Inoculation (explain before attack) or Late Defense (defend after attack) or Control (attack only). Inoculation and Late Defense both improved voter attitude and likelihood of voting over Control, but Inoculation was stronger than Late Defense

44. Identify statistics on Presidential elections concerning sound bites, who talks, and the "horse race."

each year since '68 the amount of time politicians speak or have sound bites have declined sharply, media covers politics as if it were a horse race; issues and image receive less attention in horse race coverage, but the media attracts a larger audience

45. Describe early projection procedures.

46. Identify the effects of early projections.

47. Give the three reasons why media has limited impact.

48. Identify financial statistics on ad expenditures.

In 1994 $135 billion spent
Newspapers $34 billion
TV $29 billion
Radio $10 billion

49. Describe the key elements of the ELM.

Mental State
High Elaboration State - Thinker (Lisa)
Low Elaboration State - Miser (Homer)
Arguments: information that bears on central merits of the issue, requires a lot of thought to understand
Cues: persuasion variable that influences without thinking, most ads are cue-based

50. Identify the main findings in the ELM razor study.

It makes a big difference whether you are a Thinker (central route) or Miser (peripheral route)
High Elaboration: If it contained strong arguments it got a more positive attitude whether a citizen or athlete endorses
Low Elaboration: If it had a Athlete endorsing it got a more positive attitude whether the argument was weak or strong

51. Describe the effects of ads on children.

Channel One ads create more "consumer" or "materialistic" attitudes (small effect), but no actual buying behavior differences.

52. Identify exposure and advertising statistics on Channel One.

Reaches 14-17 year olds - 10,000 schools across the USA
Most powerful of media messages which are youth oriented
Reaches a larger teen audience than ABC, CBS, NBC, and CNN combined

53. Describe learning gains from Channel One.

Moderate effect of scientific knowledge
Small effect of general knowledge

54. Define subliminal persuasion.

any messages that influence you below your conscious awareness

55. Identify everyday examples of subliminal persuasion.

Mr. Vicary's Movie Theaters (popcorn sales)
Self-Help Tapes to make you lose weight
Hal Becker Stops Shoplifters
Judas Priest satanic lyrics (backward masking)

56. Describe the results of scientific studies on subliminal messages (Kilbourne).

Small effect- both men and women had a more favorable attitude toward the ad if they saw the subliminal one (also SCR changes)

57. Give the conclusions about subliminal persuasion.

1. Subliminal messages do exist, can be created and can influence people
2. Exist on short term, cognitive, physiological basis
3. No evidence of significant behavior effect


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Updated October 19, 1999; Copyright © Krista Farley & SBB, 1996, 1997, 1998 and KF, SBB, MCT 1999. Edited by Mike Lowry