2. Define stereotyping.
3. Describe the stereotyping effects from the Natural Experiment.
4. Give the main findings from Booth-Butterfield and Geatz on stereotyping and advertising.
5. Identify the two major conclusions about stereotyping.
6. Compare the miser and thinker.
Miser: careless, mindless, look at the surface
Thinker: careful, mindful, deep
7. Identify the key statistics from TV news as a teacher.
50% of America get 100% of news from TV
10% of Americans are illiterate
8. Describe how well people learn from TV news from one newscast, from one week, and over the course of a year.
1 day - 30% correct recall
1 week - 20-40% better scores for print
1 year - 30-40% correct recall of TV
9. Identify why people learn so poorly from TV.
1. complex mix of sight, sound, and text is confusing
2. many TV viewers are poorly educated to begin with
3. because you are in a natural setting of your home so you tend to relax and not pay as much attention
10. Describe Singer's research on accuracy and her main findings.
fewer than 10% of hazard stories are error-free; news media makes mistakes, it is unpredictable what is the truth
11. Define agenda and agenda-setting.
list of topics arranged in order of importance, set by media
12. Describe how to measure public and media agendas.
Public - public opinion polls
Media - number of minutes, days on front page, headline size
13. Explain the main findings of McCombs and Shaw's research.
among undecided voters, the public agenda moved to the media agenda (they saw it on TV or in the papers, then started "buzzing" about the issue); media reaction causes public reaction, we talk about what we see in the media
14. Describe Funkhouser's findings on agendas.
media sets public agenda, no relationship between statistics and media coverage such that "blood and money" are not related to media agenda (or public agenda)
15. Identify Terman's findings on the summary of agenda-setting.
over 20 different studies, large effect, first in the media then we talk about it
16. Give the three conclusions about agenda-setting.
1. media agenda comes first
2. takes a few weeks before our agenda matches media
3. doesn't tell you what to think (for or against) but what to think about
17. Define priming.
frequency and direction of message determines attitude toward topic
18. Describe the procedures in the priming studies.
one week spent in lab every evening to watch the news and fill out scales and questionnaires, replaced 3 minutes of news with manipulated news
19. Identify the key findings of the priming studies.
if you hear good news about something you think more positive about it and if you hear bad news you have negative attitudes
20. Describe how tabloids have changed elite reporting of news.
elites used to pursue truth first and audience second, while tabloids always wanted a big audience and would stretch the truth (National Enquirer) to sell papers. Elite news has now become very profitable such that audience size is becoming as important as truth and accuracy.
21. Identify examples of the effect of tabloidization.
Michael Jackson, Gennifer Flowers, Dateline-GMC Truck Fire
22. Give the four summary points about information and media.
1. changes how we think (moderate to large)
2. whether we think something is good or bad (small to moderate)
3. indirect or unintended effects
4. compare and contrast
23. Explain the great fear (old and new versions).
Old: Hitler, skillful use of mass media, control over what the public receives
New: Perot, great amount of money can buy media coverage
24. Form the history of media and campaigns identify: the first use of any electronic media, the first use of any TV, the first political ad on TV.
1924 Radio - Calvin Coolidge, President, broadcast speeches
1928 TV - Al Smith, Gov. NY, publicity stunt
1948 Political Ad - Harry Truman, real political ad yet you don't know who it is for
25. Describe "I Love Lucy's" impact on political media.
first show to become independent, sold minutes to different companies instead of one sponsor, made a lot more money
26. Explain why 1952 marked a major turning point in political media.
selling of the presidency begins, buy time in the most popular time spot and use demographics to see where weak spots are; blueprint for modern political campaigns
27. Identify the most interesting politician of the century.
Nixon had a great resume, he won a seat in Congress in '46 and was re-elected in '48, won a senate seat in '50 and in '52 Eisenhower asked him to be his Vice-President candidate at 39 years old; then he won '68 and '72 presidential elections only to be forced to resign in '74 (Watergate)
28. Describe the "Checkers" speech and its effect.
30 min. of TV time, told people he was in debt and that his Cocker Spaniel was seen as a illegal campaign contribution; huge audience saw speech and sent millions of telegrams and cards to Republican officials to keep Nixon on the ticket
29. Describe the Contemporary Peoples' Choice model.
why do people vote the way they do? party ID, group membership, candidate image, issues and positions
30. Define polispot and the four types of polispots.
political ads; ID, Arguments, Attack, Future
31. Describe the effects of polispots.
1. use polispots to change perceptions
2. reinforce, activate, and convert
3. campaign cost - self-investment
4. weakening of party power
5. voter cynicism about selling politics
6. conditions of greatest effect - you spend a lot more than opponent and your opponent runs a stupid campaign
32. Define the attack ad and give historical examples of its use.
political message that attacks image or issue of an opponent;
Andrew Jackson was called an adulterer because his wife had married before and had a backwoods divorce
Grover Cleveland had an illegitimate child, opponents ran ads questioning if he helped raise them -"Ma Ma Ma Ma where's my Pa?"
33. Explain how inoculation works against the attack ad.
You bring up the problem before your opponent (weak attack), explain why the problem is over (active defense), which gets the audience on your side (stronger support)
34. Describe Pfau's research on inoculation and its effects.
Used Inoculation (explain before attack) or Late Defense (defend after attack) or Control (attack only). Inoculation and Late Defense both improved voter attitude and likelihood of voting over Control, but Inoculation was stronger than Late Defense
35. Identify statistics on Presidential elections concerning sound bites, who talks, and the "horse race."
each year since '68 the amount of time politicians speak or have sound bites have declined sharply, media covers politics as if it were a horse race; issues and image receive less attention in horse race coverage, but the media attracts a larger audience
36. Describe early projection procedures.
37. Identify the effects of early projections.
38. Give the three reasons why media has limited impact.
39. Identify financial statistics on ad expenditures.
40. Describe the key elements of the ELM.
41. Identify the main findings in the ELM razor study.
It makes a big difference whether you are a Thinker (central route) or Miser (peripheral route)
High Elaboration: If it contained strong arguments it got a more positive attitude whether a citizen or athlete endorses
Low Elaboration: If it had a Athlete endorsing it got a more positive attitude whether the argument was weak or strong
42. Describe the effects of ads on children.
Channel One ads create more "consumer" or "materialistic" attitudes (small effect), but no actual buying behavior differences.
43. Identify exposure and advertising statistics on Channel One.
Reaches 14-17 year olds - 10,000 schools across the USA
Most powerful of media messages which are youth oriented
Reaches a larger teen audience than ABC, CBS, NBC, and CNN combined
44. Describe learning gains from Channel One.
Moderate effect of scientific knowledge
Small effect of general knowledge
45. Define subliminal persuasion.
any messages that influence you below your conscious awareness
46. Identify everyday examples of subliminal persuasion.
Mr. Vicary's Movie Theaters (popcorn sales)
Self-Help Tapes to make you lose weight
Hal Becker Stops Shoplifters
Judas Priest satanic lyrics (backward masking)
47. Describe the results of scientific studies on subliminal messages (Kilbourne).
Small effect- both men and women had a more favorable attitude toward the ad if they saw the subliminal one (also SCR changes)
48. Give the conclusions about subliminal persuasion.
1. Subliminal messages do exist, can be created and can influence people
2. Exist on short term, cognitive, physiological basis
3. No evidence of significant behavior effect
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Updated September 15, 1996; Copyright © Krista Farley & SBB, 1996