process of stimulating meaning in the minds of others through the use of verbal and nonverbal messages
2. Define the components of communication.
source: originator of the message
message: coded meaning, verbal or nonverbal
receiver: the target of the message
channel: means of transmission, 5 senses
feedback: receiver's response to the source's message
encoding: what the source does, meaning to message
decoding: what the receiver does, message to meaning
noise: anything that interferes with communication
goals: comm is a tool used to inform, relate, and influence
3. Identify the models of communication.
Basic: Noise e d S -------> M ------> C -------> R -------------- F <----------- Mediated: Noise e d S -------> M ------> C -------> R -------------- F <-----------4. Distinguish between the mediated model and non-mediated model.
mediated model contains a technological device
5. Define the two dimensions of communication.
number of communicators (interpersonal versus mass) and
use of a technological device (yes or no?)
6. Provide examples from the Dimension Box.
|No Tech Device||date, conversation, confession||lecture, speech, rally|
|Tech Device||phone, CB, computer, pencil||TV, radio, film, VCR|
7. Identify key statistics of media exposure patterns.
Newspapers: 65% of families in America subscribe
Television: 98% of Americans have televisions
TV set is turned on 8 hrs a day
8. Define and distinguish between exposure and attention.
exposure: putting yourself in the position to receive information
attention: raising your awareness to one source while excluding all others
exposure occurs before attention
9. Describe the procedures from Anderson's Attention study.
placed a video camera in the family room to observe the face orientation on individuals while watching television to determine attention (assume face orientation=eye contact=attention)
10. Identify the key findings from Anderson's study.
15% of the time the TV set is on no one is in the room
kids average 70% attention and adults average 60%
low attention rates, if your not paying attention there may not be a great impact, erratic finding/attention
11. Describe the procedures from Kubey's everyday use study.
each individual is given a beeper and when it goes of you write down in a journal what you were doing and how you were feeling
12. Identify the key findings from Kubey's study.
Before watching TV: bad affect (anger, depression) motivates TV watching
During TV watching: generally we feel neutral, unfocused, calm (TV as drug metaphor)
After TV watching: longer sessions make us feel worse; shorter session feel better
13. Explain the effects dilemma (exposure versus attention).
people have lots of exposure, but erratic attention, so how much and what kind of efffect can messages have?
14. Define effects.
how media messages influence how individuals think, feel, and behave
15. Identify the three Effects Perspectives.
Direct Effects: The Magic Bullet Theory media messages were a drug injected in you by a needle (TV, radio) and it influences how you think, media is powerful and dangerous
Indirect Effects: The Paper Tiger media messages are mirrors which reflect what you are like
Powerful Effects, Limited Conditions: TV violence makes kids more aggressive and violent, under highly specified media circumstances the effects are powerful yet at other times there is no effect
16. Explain how people transform messages and the impact this transformation has on media effects.
how you react, what you do and associate meaning, how you perceive meaning
17. Define theory.
a set of statements which defines concepts and their relationships
18. Describe modeling theory.
Monkey See - Monkey Do, observe a model then imitate their behavior then get a consequence. "Instant Replay" story about 3rd grade and football
19. Define the process of cultivation theory.
long-term process of developing perceptions about reality based on consistent and uncontradicted media messages
20. Identify examples of resonance, mainstreaming, and the Cultivation Differential.
Resonance: message and reality are similar; greater media effect
Mainstreaming: heavy TV viewing makes different people more similar
CD: the difference between heavy TV viewers versus light TV viewers
21. Describe the two methods of researching media effects.
Experiments: random, controlled comparison of group draw a causal inference of why it happened, control what you saw and how you saw it, experiences are not always natural
Surveys: self-report, large groups, complex analysis cheap cost, quick way to gather info, people may not always be honest
22. Describe the Box Effect.
quantitative demonstration of whether people were exposed to a treatment (message vs no message) and whether they showed an outcome (yes or no).
|Did Not Show Outcome||Did Show Outcome|
|Not Given Treatment||55||45|
23. Give examples of small, moderate, and large effects sizes.
Small (10%) Moderate (30%) Large (50%)
|Small Effect||Man (28)||Rabbit (30)|
|Moderate Effect||Man (28)||Grizzly Bear (35)|
|Large Effect||Man (28)||Greyhound (42)|
|Small Effect||15 yrs old||16 yrs old|
|Moderate Effect||14 yrs old||18 yrs old|
|Large Effect||13 yrs old||18 yrs old|
24. Identify examples of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
Thinking: change when have new attitudes, beliefs, and facts
Feeling: immediate have transitory emotions and long term is a mood state
Behaving: overt (see it) and convert (can not be seen)
25. Describe the methods from the JFK study on beliefs.
survey questions to decide if you believed the movie portrayal or the Warren report
26. Identify the main effects of the movie "JFK" on beliefs.
effect of the movie made you believe in conspiracy and causes you to disbelieve theWarren Report
27. Describe the assumptions of Magic Bullet Theory.
three assumptions of effects: large (most people), uniform (different type of people), direct (effect not controlled by other forces)
28. Describe the Invasion from Mars radiocast.
radio broadcast aired October 30, 1938 was a drama produced by Mercury Theater Playhouse and directed by Orson Welles, describe invasion of Martians from Mars and were armed with laser beams; used "You Are There" news reporting technique
29. Identify the key factors that led to the panic.
the announcements which stated this was a drama was played at 8, 8:30, and 9 o'clock, people turned in to Welles when there was nothing else on the other channels, these individuals did not hear the announcements
30. Identify the circulation of comics during the 1950s.
comics were selling at 60 million copies a month
31. Describe the effects of Wertham assumed comics caused.
32. Identify the types of comics Wertham found.
Crime: graphic violence, crime scripts (how to engage in crime), sexual depiction (explicit, women in vulnerable positions)
Jungle: change of location, same as crime yet depicted in a jungle, WWII tour of jungles, zombies attack and took women back to Nazis
Superman: special skills and attributes, were white and went after bad guys with foreign accents, Batman was evil, wicked, and mad because he recruited homosexuals
Love-Confession: large to young girls, good girl falls in love with the boy from the other side of the tracks, women get abused or killed, do something intelligent half-naked
33. Give the findings of Wertham's research.
Modeling: criminal behavior, do what the favorite super hero does, monkey see - monkey do
Cultivation: relentlessly consumed, bought many comics, older children who tortured and killed young children - believed that was the way the world was
Illiteracy: speak in cliches
34. Analyze Wertham's findings from our contemporary perspective.
Over interpreted data using a small, biased sample of kids in trouble to generalize to most kids; never made research available to scientific community, went on "talk shows" instead
35. Describe the context of the time for the Payne Fund studies.
1920's: silent film developed, people confused about invention yet kids understand film immediately yet adults did not understand
36. Give the procedures used by Peterson and Thurstone.
experiment- carefully controlled, kids were tested in a institution where they were placed after their parent's death, kids didn't realize they were being studied
37. Identify the main findings from Peterson and Thurstone.
one film has small effect and the effects of several
were not very different
strong persistence effect- some decrease yet held on to most of it
38. Describe the tainted and forbidden fruit theories and which one the research evidence supports.
forbidden fruit theory claims that the warning label makes the
music more desirable, thus defeating the purpose of the
tainted fruit theory claims that the label scares off potential buyers because the music is bad, thus serving the purpose of the label
results support the tainted fruit theory, kids liked the music better and wanted the album more when there was no label
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Updated September 15, 1996; Copyright © Krista Farley & SBB, 1996