II. FITD

     A. First Request Accepted, then Target Request

     B. Freedman and Fraser, 1966

          TREATMENT:  Door-to-door survey of homemakers, the 
          Committee for Safe Driving, sign a petition encouraging 
          state legislature to support a law that supports safer 
          driving (most people comply).  CONTROL:  not contacted 
          by experimentors.  Several weeks later the same people 
          are surveyed by different experimentors with no 
          reference to earlier contact, asked to put up a very 
          large, unattractive sign in the front yard saying, 
          "DRIVE CAREFULLY."  RESULTS: 55% vs 17% compliance.

     C. Meta-analysis of FITD, Dillard et al., 1984.

          Summary of 28 FITD studies with 37 effect sizes. 5000 
          different subjects.  Effect size = .11 (r) 56% vs. 44%.  
          Two factors important, Unselfish appeal and incentive 
          (r = .17; 59-41).  Self-oriented appeal and performance 
          incentives kill FITD.  Also amount of delay between 
          requests is unimportant, but some delay is present.

     D. Why does FITD work?

          1. Self perception process

               observe own behavior and infer attitude; since I 
               signed the petition, I must be an environmental 
               kind of guy (aren't I cool?); Some support for 
               this in Dillard, 1990, HCR
III. DITF

     A. First Request Refused, then Target Request

     B. Cialdini, et al., 1975

          TREATMENT: County Youth Counseling Program reps asked 
          college adults to spend 2hrs/wk as counselors to JDs 
          for two years; CONTROL asked target request of being an 
          unpaid chaperon of JDs for a day trip to zoo (51% vs 
          17% compliance).

     C. Meta-analysis, Dillard, et al., 1984

          18 studies with 24 effect sizes. 2500 different 
          subjects.  Effect size (r = .08; 54-46).  Two factors 
          are important, Delay and Type of Request.  Any delay 
          kills DITF as does a self-oriented appeal.  No delay 
          with Unselfish appeal is best (r = .15; 58-42).

     D. Why does DITF work?

          1. reciprocal concessions (CLARCCS reciprocity rule)

               you should make concessions to someone who has 
               made a concession to you (You deny first request, 
               then the experimentor makes a concession and asks 
               for a lower request); be polite and compromise

IV. Comparing the two strategies

     A. Both produce about 20% improvement versus control

     B. Observe graph of effects

     C. DITF is clearly easier to do

     D. FITD appears to be longer lasting

V. Interesting Theoretical Problems

     A. Shouldn't same theories apply to each strategy?

     B. Self perception and DITF

          1.   I'm the kind of person who says no to strangers, 
               but now I comply with 2nd request (DITF)

     C. Reciprocal concessions and FITD

          1.   I just complied with the first request, now 
               shouldn't they do something for me?

     D. More theory work needs to be done