The issue of human cloning may violate moral or human rights. It is seen that every human has a right to have a unique identity and a right to ignorance about one’s future or to an “open future.” This could easily be disputed because of the nature of identical twins. They share the exact same genome but have different lives and futures. The right to ignorance and an open future is a separate issue. There already exists another version of the clone and they already know certain things about themselves and the future they have to live up to. The later clone will lose the spontaneity of authenticity creating and becoming his or her own self. One will lose the sense of human possibility in freely creating one’s own future.



Cloning could also produce psychological distress and harm in the clone. The clone may feel that their life may already be laid out before them and have no choices. This may cause a lot of psychological harm to the clone. They will also face psychological problems and discrimination because of the press about their identity.



Human cloning procedures would carry unacceptable risks to the clone. The procedure is far from perfected and many trials were run before Dolly was ever created. This causes the death of many clones before it. There are many risks involved including risk to an ovum donor, a nucleus donor, and a woman who receives the embryo for implantations, along with all the risks to the clone in this experimental procedure. There is also the problem with chronological age versus biological age. The clone has already gained many years by the time it was born because it was taken from adult cells. This means the clone does not have as long of a life expectancy. This is an intrusion of the clone’s right to live a long and prosperous life.



Human cloning would lessen the worth of individuals and diminish respect for human life. Human life would be seen as replaceable. If something happened to a person, like if they were killed, another clone could simply replace it. In fact, it would create a different child and could never replace the one that is lost. Clones would also be subject to discrimination based on the fact that they are a clone and did not arise because of sexual reproduction.



Human cloning would divert resources from other more important social and medical needs. The expected benefits from human cloning is limited and possibly the funding could be better used in other areas that have more and better expected outcomes.



Human cloning might be used by commercial interests for financial gain. The embryos could be bought and sold, which would lead to financial gain. This could lead to class discrimination on the eggs available. Only the rich could afford the “best” children. Poor families would have to settle with eggs that are damaged or imperfect.



Human cloning might be used by governments or other groups for immoral and exploitative purposes. Any use of human cloning for such purposes would exploit the clones solely as means for the benefit of other, and would violate the equal moral respect and dignity they are owed as full moral persons.



Human cloning used on a very widespread basis would have disastrous effect on the human gene pool by reducing genetic diversity and our capacity to adapt to new conditions. Like many cloned plants, human may face extinction if evolution is not allowed to follow it’s proper course of action.